DRUGS– Any substance other than food which changes the way the body or the mind functions.

Classification based on Origin

Natural: These drugs are obtained from natural sources like plants eg. Opium, Cannabis etc.

Semi-Synthetic:    These drugs are manufactured by processing natural drugs with chemicals etc. eg. Heroin, Cocaine.

Synthetic: These are drugs manufactured purely from synthetic substances. eg. Mandrax, Dizapam, Barbiturates, ATS etc.  


Classification based on Effects

Depressants: These drugs slow down the activity of Central Nervous System. eg. Opium, Heroin, Barbiturates etc.

Stimulants: These drugs increase the activity of Central Nervous System. Eg. Amphetamine, Cocaine, etc.

Hallucinogens :  These are drugs that distort our normal visions, hearing and feeling functions. eg. LSD, PCP, Mescaline, Psylocibin.


Natural Drugs – Opium

  • Opium: it is the coagulated juice obtained from the unripened seed pod of the opium poppy.
  • Prepared by making incisions on the unripened seed pod of Poppy and collecting the milky substance that oozes out.
  • Contains – Morphine(4-21%), Codeine(0.7–3%), Thebaine(0.2-1%)
  • Milky white juice – turns brown or black in contact with air.
  • Orally administered or smoked.
  • It is a depressant.
  • Analgesic,  anticough
  • Causes  euphoria, drowsiness, lethargy,  constriction of pupils
  • Major centers of production of opium-
  • Golden crescent: Afghanistan, Pakistan & Iran; Golden triangle  : Myanmar, Thailand & Laos.
  • Total area under cultivation in the world: 235 thousand hectare.
  • Afghanistan is a major contributor (193 thousand hectare), Myanmar(27.7 thou hectare)

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Supply Issues in MP

In M.P. licences for the cultivation of Opium are given in the following seven districts

i) Five districts of Ujjain range

  • Ujjain, Mandsaur, Ratlam, Neemuch, Shajapur

ii)  One distt. of Bhopal range

  •  Rajgarh

iii)  One district of Indore range.

  • Jhabua


Natural Drugs – MORPHINE

  • Morphine is also known as marph, white stuff, miss –amma.
  • Morphine: Extracted by dissolving raw opium in hot water , precipitating impurities by adding lime.
  • White to brown powder, turns black in contact with air.
  • Orally administered or injected
  • It is an analgesic and a depressant
  • Causes  euphoria, drowsiness, lethargy,  constriction of pupils


Natural Drugs – Cannabis

    • Ganja/ Marijuana is the flowering top of the female plants of cannabis.
    • Greenish to dark brown, is pressed into bricks to reduce volume
    • Smoked
    • No medicinal use
    • It is a depressant and hallucinogen.
    • Causes euphoria, relaxed inhibitions, increased appetite, dizziness
    • Cannabis production is reported in 172 countries.
    • Global production is about 41,400 m.t. in 2006.
    • America (North & South)- 55%, Africa-22%  followed by Asia & Europe.

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Natural drugs – HASHISH / CHARAS

    • Cannabis Resin: Hashish, Charas.
    • Dark green or brown resinous mass.
    • Smoked
    • No medicinal use
    • It increases appetite, dizziness, wild euphoria, feeling of relaxation, relief from anxiety.


Semi-Synthetic – HEROIN

  • It is also known as smack, joy powder and brown-suger.
  • Heroin: Prepared by treating morphine with Acetic   Anhydride.
  • White to dark brown powder.
  • Smoked or injected and snorting
  • No medical use.
  • It is a depressant.
  • Causes  euphoria, drowsiness, lethargy,  constriction of pupils

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Semi-Synthetic – Cocaine

    • Made by drying coca leaves and making into paste and converting to cocaine hydrochloride.
    • White crystalline powder like camphor
    • Sniffed, smoked, injected.
    • It is a stimulant.
    • It causes physical stimulation, hyper activeness, release of inhibition, euphoria, loss of sleep.
    • Major areas of cocaine production:
    • Latin American countries: Columbia, Peru , Bolivia.
    • Total area under cultivation in 2007- 181 thou ha.
    • Columbia – 99 thou ha, Peru- 53.7 thou ha, Bolivia- 29 thou ha

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Synthetic Drugs – Depressants

    • It effects the Central Nervous System by decelerating its activities.
    • Sedatives, tranquilizers & hypnotics come under this category.
    • Barbiturates  and non Barbiturates like Benzodiazepines, Methaqualone & Glutethinide
    • Barbiturates are derivatives of barbituric acid.
    • Induces relaxation, relief from anxiety and sleep.
    • Used as anesthetic in minor surgery, pre & post operative sedation.
    • Mostly short & intermediate acting barbiturates like pentobarbital, secobarbital and butalbital are abused.
    • Symptoms- Drowsy & confused, poor muscle control, staggering gait, impaired memory & inability to concentrate.


Synthetic Drugs – Stimulants

    • It effects the Central Nervous System by increasing its activities.
    • Amphetamines:  Benzedrine, Dexedrine and Methamphetamine.
    • Methamphetamine is manufactured from ephedrine/ pseudoephedrine/ 1 phenyl 2 propanone.
    • Treatment of attention deficit disorders, narcolepsy (sleepiness), obesity
    • Restlessness, tremor, talkativeness, anxiety, insomnia, convulsion & coma.
    • Non-Amphetamines :  Retalin   Preludin
    • Ritalin is the trade name of methylphenidate hydrochloride. Preludin is the name for phenmatrazine hydrochloride.


Production centers:

    • Amphetamines :  Europe
    • Methamphetamine: East & South East Asia, North America and Oceania.


Synthetic Drugs – Hallucinogens

    • It effects the Central Nervous System by producing perceptual alterations, intense and varying emotional changes, ego distortions and thought disruptions.
    • LSD (Lysergic Acid diethylamide), PCP (Phencyclidine), MDMA (ecstasy), Mescaline, Psilocybin.
    • LSD is synthesized from lysergic acid which is extracted from the fungus ergot growing on rye/wheat grains.



  • PCP (angels dust) is a white crystalline powder.
    • Mescaline is the primary ingredient of peyote cactus.
  • Psilocybin is an alkaloid found in psilocybe mushroom.
  • MDMA (ecstasy) is both stimulant & hallucinogen.
  • Manufactured from safrole in clandestine labs.
  • MDMA is manufactured mainly in North America, western Europe and Oceania.